Saturday, February 22, 2020
What do you believe to be the main force driving change in the International Business Environment - Essay Example The traditional ways of transacting businesses are becoming obsolete due rapid changes and inventions. Cultural, political, environmental, and economical forces characterize globalization and have great impact in the international business environment. Introduction Globalization is the process by which people all over the globe are interconnected into one village such that an occurrence in one part of the world will have a direct impact on the other part. Major changes in international business environment and business operations are because of globalization of business. Today, several significant transformations can be observed in the international business environment and most of these transformations are occurring spontaneously. The changes are unpredictable and inevitable such that one transformation is leading to emergence of more numerous changes. Similar to industrial revolution that completely transformed business environment in Europe, these transformations are necessary in both their outcome and magnitude. The main transformation includes increased competition, rapid changes, and increased use of computers and adoption of sophisticated information technology and networks. Investors or rather employers need to learn the new principles of success, and keep reinventing the objectives of the business (Batra and Dangwal, 2005, p.88). People from different states have developed similar tastes and preferences leading to homogeneity of needs. Globalization encompasses numerous processes by which, institutions, money, people, goods, and services are able to cross territorial or domestic boundaries freely Globalization as a process is a result of sociocultural, political, economic, and technological forces. Globalization is mostly used to mean economic globalization, which is the connectedness of world economies into international economy though exchange of goods, capital investment, migration, and increased use of technology (Brooks and Weatherston et al., 201 1, p.165). The continuing increase in globalization raises the need to understand the different cultures of the world more so corporates and communities cultures. There is an increased transfer of workforce or experts from one country to another, in effort to assist establish new locations of the company or boost existing ones in order to achieve their objectives (KPMG International, 2013, p. 2). Mere knowledge of communication skills is not enough but also the understanding of cultural influences, varied communication designs and social settings of every society do drive the success of globalization. The real standing of globalization can be understood by focusing on three main changes. The first major change is the one witnessed in the job markets. The increased demand of employees with multilingual knowledge has led to people moving from state to another for employment or travelling internationally for the purpose of business transactions (Gelbart, 2012, p. 1). Also of important is the emergence of e-commerce, which have a major impact on competition and growth of market as the original location of firm is not an issue anymore. Increased in cross boarders travels has in turn led to wide spread of traditional cultures and practices all over the world. PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s cultures all over the world seem to rhyme and everybody seems to be adapting to global behaviors, especially in trade industry. Focusing on our social environment
Thursday, February 6, 2020
Early childhood education - Research Paper Example Early Childhood Education (ECD) is one of the substantial and essential components for the students that help them grow in every field of their lives that can lead them to the attainment of success, status, and prosperity. With the advancements and developments that the world is encountering, the educational and learning curriculum and the teaching methods have improved and enhanced in a continuous way that have left an indelible impression on the achievement of the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s progress in a productive and positive manner Education is the learning, knowledge, insight and the information that students get in their academic levels that can provide them with an understanding about how and in which direction to lead their lives. Moreover, quality in education helps the students to make their lives in a much better position as they have the power of knowledge. Due to such importance, that education holds in itself, education, and predominantly early childhood education is one of the prime concerns that cannot come under ignorance. Nonetheless, like any other sphere of influence, the area of education also has numerous issues that the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ experience in their academic lives (Saracho & Spodek, pp. 1-4). Besides, students have a strong need to develop specific skills that takes account of problem solving, analytical and critical thinking skills in order to survive and cope up the world of global competition. Early childhood educators play an integral role in setting the underpinning for developing the future leaders of the planet. However, with respect to the broad spectrum of early childhood education, the primary and first question that comes to mind is regarding the program of study of the students. Therefore, the thesis statement of the dissertation is Ã¢â¬Å"when designing the curriculum for the preschool of young childÃ¢â¬â¢s classroom, what are the prime concern areas, concepts or subjects to focus that can lead to the progress of the student in a most constructive wayÃ¢â¬ . Literature Review According to various researches, it has come under notice that the physical environment of the classroom plays a significant role in the learning styles of the students that has failed to come under notice and ignored to great extent. In addition, these studies conclude that the prime focus of the educators or the teachers is only on pedagogy, content of the core curriculum and interpersonal dynamics, which eradicates their focus from the physical contexts, which is one of the imperative contributors of teaching and learning. The physical environment of the classroom includes the classroom setting as well as the outdoor setting. However, these studies conclude that by changing the classroom environment that persuade and endorse play would facilitate in escalating and promoting literacy activities among children during their early childhood or preschool years (Essa, pp. 189-191). In addition, the environment ought to be such that m ust provide opportunities to the children that can lead them to explore and learn. Studies also exhibit that the arrangement of shelves, comfortable and sturdy furniture, learning materials displayed on shelved and classroom design on an overall basis when taken into strong consideration demonstrates to be very fruitful (Essa, pp. 192-195). According to some schools of thoughts, it has come under observation that teachers and educators of early childhood is another vital and crucial facet that must have a proper background knowledge and information regarding the early childhood education or child development. This is because courses related to such studies provide massive emphasis on the development of the child and the
Tuesday, January 28, 2020
Higher education Essay Education Ã¢â¬Å"Knowledge is powerÃ¢â¬ as Focault stated. This quote is commonly used to define not only the importance of knowledge and its effect, but ones decision to attain knowledge demonstrates power of developing knowledge. Education is one of the main factors in attaining knowledge. Education serves and effects society in numerous of ways. The influence of educational institutions, the structure it has on children and adolescents, the control education has on society, how education transform lives , and the social benefits that comes with having a higher education. Education may be defined as the process by which a society transmits knowledge, values, norms, and ideologies from young people to adult roles. The influence of educational institutions is one example of how education affects our society. According to the article Ã¢â¬Å"Universal EducationÃ¢â¬ , Mr. Gatto states Ã¢â¬Å"School is the first impression children get out of an organized society. Like most first impressions, it lastsÃ¢â¬ (N. P). To me, this statement clearly represents not only how school is an educational institution influencing the lives of many, but how Gatos express that schools are a part of the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s socialization process in development (1 ). Our youth, which is considered the future of our society, develop some their values and learning processes from institutions. School is very crucial and necessary in a childÃ¢â¬â¢s upbringing, because it takes the child from childhood and prepares them for adult activities. Institutions serve as a backbone to create, maintain order, and control our environment which entails the rules and monitoring systems. Schools have provided a structured system with policies, and procedures that influence the youth. Educational institutions help create a social world for children. One of the main factors of education is that its structures the lives of children and adolescents. Education gives an opportunity to enhance careers and skills for beneficial purposes. That is why schools prepare students to be effective economic competitors, reliable workers for employers, and well-adjusted individuals. In Ã¢â¬Å"Letters to a Young BrotherÃ¢â¬ , Mr. Harper states Ã¢â¬Å"Since the key to staying in the game is education, it is essential that you take control of your relationship with schoolÃ¢â¬ (56). This statement clearly shows HarperÃ¢â¬â¢s affirmation about the bond between oneÃ¢â¬â¢s education and financial success. Mr. Harper expounds greatly on the importance of education and how it influences and affects the life of young adolescents. Schools shape the life of a child from childhood years well into adulthood. For instance, the beginning years of school develops the childÃ¢â¬â¢s interactions and social skills. In oneÃ¢â¬â¢s early school years, one learns how to read, write, and how to develop key social skills that one will utilize for a life long period. Even in adulthood, education affects our lives, because of the careers available and the amount of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s salary tends to increase with the completion of academic programs and degrees. Education also motivates, pushes our youth to do better, and want to amount something professional in their lifetime. Education has a major control on society as a whole. Educational institutions affect not only our surroundings, but the daily lives of all people within that society. In my opinion, every neighborhood should contain some sort of institutions, whether itÃ¢â¬â¢s a community college, high school, or even an elementary school. Education improves lives and minds, and offers more opportunities and possibilities. Our education system embeds our youth with a structure of discipline, and knowledge that will be utilized for further advancement in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life. On a collective note, our institution of education reinforces the statuses of the larger society. Some parents are affected and play a major role in the childÃ¢â¬â¢s school life. For example I maintain a safe environment for my seven year old son. I show interest in his progress at school, help him with his homework, explain the value of a good education him , and I also stay touch with teachers and school staff . The main reason I created such partnerships is because I understand how important is education and I know it will help him succeed in school, and in later life. The key to a bright and successful future for the youth is through the education they get at school, but they also need resources at home to support them. Parent involvement in childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s education allows kids to perform better in school Education is the key to creating opportunity and changing lives. Ã¢â¬Å"The unemployment rate for people who have never gone to college is more than double (10 percent) what it is for those who have gone to college (4. 5 percent)Ã¢â¬ (qtd. in Hawkins N. P. ). These statistics make it clear that completing some form of higher education is the best tool to meet the challenges of a 21st century economy. Education is a productive and beneficial factor in a personÃ¢â¬â¢s life. The benefits of a college education are evident; higher salaries and lower unemployment rates. Ã¢â¬Å"Cities with a higher percentage of college graduates have lower crime ratesÃ¢â¬ (qtd. in Hawkins N. P). Criminal offenders often have low levels of education. Statistics shows only 35 percent of inmates in U. S. correctional facilities have earned a high school diploma, compared to 82 percent of the general population. Young people with insufficient education are immensely found within the criminal justice system. Education provides opportunities to reduce crime, by helping children to gain knowledge, skills, and character that help them avoid criminal activity. I think education is one the most auspicious means we have of preventing and reducing crime A college education is essential in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society to earn a job. A College degree will open the door of opportunity in ways that will increase your potential in landing a great job in the field of preferred study. The more knowledge and experience one holds, the more willing employers are to furnish better positions in the company, and enhanced pay raises or bonuses. Having a college degree tells your current or prospective employer a lot. First, students gain a wealth of knowledge in school. Spending two or four years immersed in a program dedicated to your job field, arms you with the knowledge youÃ¢â¬â¢ll need from day one on the job. Employers know that if youÃ¢â¬â¢ve got a degree, you wonÃ¢â¬â¢t need as much training as those without one. A degree also gives you a different perspective of the industry than that of someone without a diploma. Having a college degree makes the employee more valuable to a company (Cunningham, N.P). Your job relies on the amount of education youve received and have achieved in subjects. Math can help you out in money in shops; you can become a successful shop accountant or a bank accountant. English helps you with your daily communicating skills; you can become a successful lawyer, English made writers like James Patterson and Steven King. Science is included in our daily lives, when you water plants, make a cup of tea, freezing food; you could become a scientist, doctor, chemist. Science made people like Einstein. Even if you dont want a job, you need to have some sort of knowledge of the world. Education is the path to success; it benefits individuals, families, and communities (Harper, 106). Ã¢â¬Å"College graduates are statistically more likely to have healthy children and to be involved with their childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s education both inside and outside of school. Studies have also found that there is a correlation between a womans education, and the health of her children. Thusly, having a college degree is related to good health in parents, and learning readiness in children. For instance, more than 90 percent of preschoolers whose mothers are college graduates are read to at least three times a week, compared to 76 percent of their counterparts whose mothers are high school graduatesÃ¢â¬ (qtd. in Cunningham N. P). Higher income is one out of many benefits of having a higher education, people with more education tend to have more leisure time and better outcomes for their children, and improved quality of life in general. For example, they are more likely to have jobs that provide health insurance and retirement benefits than workers without college education. In conclusion, Ã¢â¬Å"School is a great gift our society offers you. It provides the key for your futureÃ¢â¬ (Torres, 160). Educational institutions serve as a major influential force in society and the lives of both children and parents. Schools are organized networks of socializing experiences, which prepare individuals to act in society. Education structures the lives of many, whether itÃ¢â¬â¢s a child, adolescents, or adults. Education is very meaningful in the upbringing of a child, and plays a significant role in his/her life. Education educates individuals, such that they prefer not to engage in crime. College-educated adults engage more frequently in educational activities with their children. A college degree proves to an employer that youÃ¢â¬â¢re devoted to your career, and serves as proof that youÃ¢â¬â¢re knowledgeable and qualified in your field. Essentially, higher earnings are one of the important outcomes of higher education. It is imperative you have an advanced education if you want to be successful. Work citation Cunningham, Alisa. The Broader Societal Benefits of Higher Education. the Solutions For Our Future ProjectÃ¢â¬ . The Institute for Higher Education Policy, Washington, D. C. , N. D. Web. 29 Oct 2012. Gatto, Taylor John. Universal Education. Yes Magazine, yesmagazine. org. 02 1998. Web. 29 Oct 2012. Harper, Hill. Letters To a Young Brother. New York, N. Y: Penguin group USA Inc. , 2006. 56-105. Print. Hawkins, Mary. Reinventing Your Life with Education: The Larry Crowne Effect. Ã¢â¬ . pickthebrain. com, 07 2011. Web. 29 Oct 2012. Torres, Jose. A letter to a Child Like Me. Trans. Array Across Cultures: A Reader For Writers. Sheena Gillespie and Robert Becker. 8th. Ed. USA: Pearson, Inc. , 2011. 160-164. Print.
Monday, January 20, 2020
Enough Talk about God I believe the Church has been talking about God for long enough now. We're due for a change. People know enough about God. They know what God likes and what God doesn't and how God would generally want them to live their lives. It seems, to us and to them, that we just keep repeating ourselves. As I said, we've been talking about God for long enough now. It's time to stop talking about God, and start getting our kids and neighbors and friends in touch with God. It's time to help them taste and see that the Lord is good. Not "sit and think," But taste and see! If we're pretty excited about introducing a friend of ours to someone, we might talk about it for awhile, telling our friend all about this new person and how great they are. But if we never got around to actually introducing them, our friend would get pretty tired of the same old stories. It's the relationship that is important, not the knowledge. Sure, this makes sense, but it gets pretty tricky when you start talking about God. How do you actually introduce someone to the Spirit of Christ?! The most significant way, I believe, is to model the relationship. The first question, if you are serious about moving your circle of influence past the "intellectualization" of Christianity, is to ask yourself if you feel you are experiencing intimacy with Christ. Christian mysticism is about spirit meeting spirit, and a bond being formed. The most important task you can do as an ambassador for Christ, is to spend time hanging out with God yourself. Even if it cuts into time that you wanted to spend in "ministry." Spending some time enjoying God's presence, aware that God is enjoying yours at the same time, will do more for those around you, than any words you could work up. If you have a sense of intimacy with Christ, you will be able to do more than just talk about God. Creating some guidelines for personal "sabbath time" with the Lover of your life will be a significant ministry to those in your circle of influence. Six years ago I made a commitment to spend one morning a week out at a retreat center for reading and meditation.
Sunday, January 12, 2020
Elizabeth Terry Biology 101-06 MWF at 3:00 November 14, 2011 Research paper DOWN SYNDROME Down syndrome is the most common cause of mental retardationDown syndrome is the most common cause of mental retardation. It is caused by the presence of an extra chromosome. Chromosomes contain sequences of DNA called genes that represent the genetic information that exists within a cell. Twenty-three distinctive pairs of chromosomes which is 46 in total. They are located within the nucleus (a region of the cell that is bounded by a specialized membrane, and which houses the genetic material).When a sperm cell fertilizes an egg cell, the newly created zygote normally receives 23 chromosomes from each parent. The contribution of genetic information from each parent is what makes each baby a distinctive blend of both characteristics. In Down syndrome a mistake during division of the sperm or egg cell produces a cell with an extra chromosome 21. This event occurs during cell division and is referr ed to as nondisjunction, or the failure of all chromosomes to separately properly resulting in retention of one of the chromosomes in one of the two new daughter cells.This is also called trisomy 21 and is accounted for 95% of all Down syndrome patients. A rare number of Down syndrome cases the original egg and sperm cells begins with the correct number of chromosomes but shortly after fertilization during the phase where cells are dividing rapidly a single cell can divide abnormally creating a line of cells with an extra chromosome 21. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s called a cell line mosaicism. The individual with this type of down syndrome has two types of cells: some 46 chromosomes which is the normal number and some with 47.Individuals who are mosaic for trisomy 21 typically have less sever sign and symptoms of the disorder. Another are location that can cause down syndrome is called a chromosome translocation. This is an even that unlike the numerical abnormally causing trisomy 21, there is a st ructural abnormality. Exchange of material from two different chromosomes during the production of sex cells can take place such that there is a whole chromosome 21 attached to another chromosome but the chromosome number is normal. These types of translocation involving chromosome 21, occur in about 3-4% of cases of Down syndrome.Ancient cultures, such as those in Greece, Rome, and Egypt, put disabled infants to death. Compassion toward the disabled was awakened by the early Christian church, but its charitable influence waned during the middle ages. Down syndrome also affected this people due to no one really caring about what was going on with the ill children. Down syndrome has a lot of causes and this is normally what some parents want to know is why their child is born with this syndrome. Most times this is why they tell you while you are carrying your child you need to watch very closely and look for all signs of genetic disorders with pregnant.Down syndrome is a chromosom al disorder as I said before. A baby is usually identified at birth through observation of a set of common physical characteristics. Babies with Down syndrome tend to be overly quiet. When I say that I mean less responsive with weak floppy muscles. With that being said a number of physical signs might be present. This includes a flat bridge of the nose which is smaller than normal. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a low set nose. They will tend to have a small mouth with a protruding tongue, upward slanting eyes and also extra folds of skin located at the corner of each eye, near the nose.They will have small outwardly rotated ears and small hands as well. Usually they have an unusual deep crease across the center of the palm and a malformed fifth finger. They will have a wide space between the big and the second toes and unusual creases on the soles of the feet. They also experience shorter than normal height later on in their childhood. Before genetic testing became available, Down syndrome was diagno sed based on certain typical physical characteristics. Not all people with Down syndrome have all these characteristics though.This can vary from certain people and are caused by the extra chromosomes. Individuals with Down syndrome also have joints that are looser than normal. Their skulls are short and broad. Newborns usually have extra skin on the back of their neck, and as the child gets older the neck often appears short and wider than usual. Facial shape is round in the newborn and also during infancy. When the child gets older their face shape becomes oval like. This is due to the underdevelopment they go through. Their cheeks are round and the teeth develop late and in an unusual order.Although Down syndrome is not curable and there will be no cure for it, parents, researchers, and also the Down syndrome individuals try to make the best out of life and try dealing with it. Advances in medical treatment over the past 40 to 50 years for conditions such as heart defects and respiratory disease have led to dramatic increases in the life expectancy of those with Down syndrome.  Half of the children born with Down syndrome during the late 1960s survived to age 5. Bronchopneumonia, a respiratory illness and heart defects were the most common causes of death.Now about 80% of those born with it survive to age 10, and about 50% of them survive to age 50 or beyond. The recent statistics from various study places show that the place of incidence of Down syndrome anywhere from 1 in 600 to 1 in 1,000 live births. An analysis published by various people. Bray and colleagues in 1998 of combined data from nine different studies found that the incidence varies from 1 in 1,445 live birth mothers at age 10 to 1 in 25 live births to mothers at age 45. Down syndrome really is a hard disorder to live with but at the same time it has its advantages.Down syndrome has no treatment options but they have a lot of programs to help cope with this syndrome. The development of a child is a joyous thing. It involves amazing ohhs and ahhhs that would shock you every day your child does something new. All kids from the time their able to sit up by them and walks are learning new things everyday. Even as adults we learn new things everyday but still with Down syndrome, everything that they accomplish is outstanding. All kids learn to develop their fine motor skills but there are different aspects when it comes to Down syndrome children.The development of motor skills is very hard. The first thing you have to do is have a laid out foundation of how you plan on teaching that child. This is very dependent on stability. Stability is being able to push open a heavy door. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s being able to put on your shoes without falling. It is carrying a tray full of drinks. Its really a list that goes on but with this syndrome most things arenÃ¢â¬â¢t accomplished because down syndrome babies lack stability. Most of the people diagnosed wit this syndrome also tends to walk a little strange. They walk from side to side and always have their head twisted.Now as kids get older and reach their age past ten, then your not exactly ok, but you can breathe a little. Most researchers are still concerned about the older ones but its really the babies that most are worried about. They tend to go through a lot as newborns and unto there early infants stages.  Babies with Down syndrome suffer a lot. They have a lot they feel and go through, but being an infant and not being able to talk doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t help at all. Being born with Down syndrome you experience how it is from that point on and for the rest of your life.Children with this syndrome almost always have some degree of intellectual disability. That is why they learn slower and have difficulty with complex reasoning and judgment. The degree of intellectual impairment various tremendously. These kids do learn and what they do learn they will not forget. Down syndrome can not be prevented but it is People with Down syndrome, whatever their age, are people first. They are people with abilities, strengths and weaknesses like everyone else. They may have additional needs but first they have the same needs as everyone else of their age group.The quality of health care, education and community support provided to children and adults with Down syndrome makes a real difference to their progress throughout life. This module provides an introduction to all the issues that need to be addressed to enable individuals with Down syndrome, and their families, to enjoy full and happy lives within their communities. It offers an overview of the development of individuals with Down syndrome from infancy to adult life. It also provides a summary of the causes of Down syndrome, the incidence and prevalence of the condition, life expectancy and associated education and health care needs.Children with down syndrome experience problems with their digestive tract at a rate that is much higher than t hat of other children.  some of these problems such as blockage of the digestice tract can be life threatening and can require emergency surgery. Blockage or atresia of the esophagus or the duodenum can cause starvation if not corrected. Atresia occurs when the anal opening does not develop. This condition prevents solid waste from being eliminated from the intestinal tract and must be corrected surgically. Anal stenosis will allow waste products to pass, but will cause constipation.Gastroesophageal feflux is also more common in individuals with down syndrome. During this stage food reenters the esophagus from the stomach. This can cause vomiting and irritation of the esophagus. You can also have vision problem s with down syndrome to. Theses problems are common with those suffering with down syndrome. Strabismus in which one or both euyes either truns in or out. Occurs in 43% of theses chuldren. It is caused by abnormal or incomplete development of the cneters in the brain that control the coordination of eye movements. This condition may require an eye patch, special glasses or even surgery.Vision therapy may also be benificial and should be considered before surgery. Hearing problems also come with syndrome.  anatomical differences that result from trisomy 21 contribute to the larger percentage of hearing difficulties founf in individuals with down syndrome. Appromately 53% in children with down syndrome have hearing problems. This makes it more difficult to examine the ars for wax buildup and infection. The middle ear is smaller than normal, as well. This contributes to the presence of chronic ear infections in 40% to 60% of children with downs syndrome.The shallow nasal bridge founfd in 61% of individuals with down syndrome also contributed. Collapse or blockage of the eustachian tube, which leads from the ear to the throat, causes fluid to build up in the middle ear and increases the risk of middle ear infection. In children with down syndrome t he eustachian tubes are often smaller tha normal and have lowered muscle tone. Problems with fluid build up in the middle ear occur in 60% of indiviuals with down syndrome this fluid buildup interferes with hearing and can cause permanent hearing loss if it remains for a long peopif of time.Estimates of hearing loss in people with down syndrome range from 60% to 80%. Hearing loss in children can contribute to language and speech difficulies as well as auditory attention. Monitoring for fluid buildup and infections of the middle ear should begin before the age of six months and should continue into adulthood. Hearin aids may be a choice as well. Another problem that occurs in down syndrome individuals is problems with thyroid gland. Weighing less than one ounce the thyroid is actually one of the largest endocrine glands. Thyroid hormones help regualte the synthesis of growth factore and many hormones.Thyroid hormones are crucial for proper brain development during pregnancy. They are also important in normal growth. Because they are composed of the amino acid tyrosine, to which iodine molecules have been atattched adequate iodine in the diet is esstenial for their production. Another hormone produced by the thyroid gland is calcitonin which regulates the levels and metabolism of calcium. The hormones tri-iodothyonine and tetraiodothyonine are produced by the thyroid gland in a ratio of 1;14. t4 is secreted by the thyroid gland in responses to TSH. The active form, T3 is formed in the kidney, liver, and pleen by removal of one iodine molecule from T4. individuals with down syndrome also are 10 to 30 times more likely to develop Leukemia.  This is a type of cancer caused by the production of abnormal qhite blood cells by the bone marrow. These abnormal cells eventually crowd out normal white and red blood cells. There are two main types of leukemia. Acute and chronic. Acute leukemias develop slowly and the patienst condition worsens slowly. Chronic leukemia de velops rapidly and the patients syptoms worsen quickly. About 10% of babies born with down syndrome develop a transient leukemia that usually goes away by 3 months of age.About 20% to 30% of those with this transient condtion go on to develop acute leukemia. Babies who do not have down syndrome rarely have the transient form of leukemia. This higher risk of leukemia is in contrast to the risk of other types of cancer in individuals with down syndrome. The incidence of most types of solid tumors is muh smaller than in the general population. Down syndromes rates has also increased. From 1979 to 2003, the prevalence (total number of cases of a disease in a population at a specific time) of Down syndrome (DS) at birth increased by 31 percent, from 9 to 12 per 10,000 live births in 10 US regions.Within the 10 regions, birth prevalence of DS ranged from a low of 9. 7 in Arkansas to a high of 13. 7 in Utah during 1997-2003. The number of infants born with DS was almost 5 times higher amon g births to older mothers (38. 6 per 10,000) than among births to younger mothers (7. 8 per 10,000). In 2002, DS was found to be present in about 1 of every 1,000 children and adolescents aged 0 to 19 living in 10 chosen regions of the United States, which means that approximately 83,000 children and adolescents with DS were living in the United States during that year. Prevalence of DS by age group was the highest in 0-3 year olds at 11. , declining to 10. 3 among 4-7 year olds, 9. 8 among 8-11 year olds, 8. 3 among 12-15 year olds, and 6. 0 among 16-19 year olds. A screening test will help identify the possibility of Down syndrome. Screening tests do not provide conclusive answers, but rather, they provide an indication of the likelihood of the baby having Down syndrome. An abnormal test result does not mean that your baby has Down syndrome. The goal with a screening test is to estimate the risk of t baby having Down syndrome. If the screening test is positive and a risk for Down syndrome exists, further testing may be recommended.Diagnostic tests can identify Down syndrome before the baby is born. January issue of Obstetrics & Gynecology, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists released guidelines recommending screening for Down syndrome to all pregnant women during their first trimester. Agnostic tests tend to be more expensive and have a degree of risk; screening tests are quick and easy to do. However, screening tests have a greater chance of being wrong; there are Ã¢â¬Å"false-positiveÃ¢â¬ (test indicates the baby has the condition when the baby really does not) and Ã¢â¬Å"false-negativesÃ¢â¬ (baby has the condition but the test indicates they do not).As far as those individual kids with Down syndrome there is a lot that they can do, just as the regular ones. Kids with Down syndrome tend to have a sense of humor. Those with this disorder have slurred words and stutter but what you can understand they have pretty good conversation. Also in about 4 percent of all down syndrome cases the individual possesses not an entire third copy of chromosome 21 material, which has been incorporated via a translocation into a no homologous chromosome. In translocation pieces are swapped between two non-related chromosomes forming hybrid chromosomes.The most common translocation associated with Down syndrome is that between the long arm (down gene area) of chromosome 21 and an end of chromosome 14.  The individual in whom the translocation has occurred shows no evidence of the aberration since the normal complement of genetic material is still present only a different chromosomes location. The difficulty arises when this individual forms gametes. A mother who possesses the 21/14 translocation, for example has one normal 21 one normal 14 and the hybrid chromosomes.She is a genetic carrier for the disorder because she can pass it on to her offspring even though she is clinically normal. The mother can produce three types of viable gametes: one containing the normal 14 and 21. the presence of an extra copy of the long arm of chromosome 21 causes defects in many tissues and organs. One major effect of Down syndrome is mental retardation. The intelligence quotients of affected individuals are typically in the range of 40-50. The IQ varies with age but being higher in childhood than in adolescence or adult life.The disorder is often accompanied by physical traits. Trisomy 21 is one of the most common chromosomal aberrations occurring in about 0. 5 percent of all conceptions and in one out of every seven hundred to eight hundred live births. About 15 percent of the patients institutionalized for mental deficiency suffer from Down syndrome. Before the chromosomal basis for the disorder was determined the frequency of Down syndrome births was correlated with increased maternal age. For mothers at age twenty the incidence of down syndrome is about 0. 5 percent which increases to 0. 9 percent by the age thirty -five and 3 percent at age forty-five. Comparing the chromosomes of the affected offspring with those of both parents have shown that the nondisjunction event is maternal about 75 percent the time. The maternal age effect is thought to result from the different manner in which the male and female gametes are produced. Gamete production in the male event in females. Formation of the femaleÃ¢â¬â¢s gametes begins early in embryonic life, somewhere but between the eight and twentieth weeks.During this time, cells in the developing ovary divide rapidly by mitosis forming cells called primary oocytes. These cells then begin meiosis by pairing up the homologues. The process is interrupted now and the cells are held in a state of suspended animation until needed in reproduction, when they are triggered to complete their division. Most individuals with Down syndrome have intellectual disability in the mild (IQ 50Ã¢â¬â70) to moderate (IQ 35Ã¢â¬â50) range, with individuals having Mosai c Down syndrome typically 10Ã¢â¬â30 points higher. Dr.Weihs notes the mental qualities of people with Down syndrome to be Ã¢â¬Å"unisexual,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"playful,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"affectionate,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"mischievousÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"imitativeÃ¢â¬ . Language skills show a difference between understanding speech and expressing speech, and commonly individuals with Down syndrome have a speech delay. Fine motor skills are delayed and often lag behind gross motor skills and can interfere with cognitive development. Effects of the condition on the development of gross motor skills are quite variable. Some children will begin walking at around 2 years of age, while others will not walk until age 4.Physical therapy, and/or participation in a program of adapted physical education (APE), may promote enhanced development of gross motor skills in Down syndrome children. A 2002 literature review of elective abortion rates found that 91Ã¢â¬â93% of pregnancies in the United Kingdom a nd Europe with a diagnosis of Down syndrome were terminated.  Data from the National Down Syndrome Cytogenetic Register in the United Kingdom indicates that from 1989 to 2006 the proportion of women choosing to terminate a pregnancy following prenatal diagnosis of Down syndrome has remained constant at around 92%.In the United States a number of studies have examined the abortion rate of fetuses with Down syndrome. Three studies estimated the termination rates at 95%, 98%, and 87% respectively. Medical ethicist Ronald Green argues that parents have an obligation to avoid Ã¢â¬Ëgenetic harm' to their offspring, and Claire Rayner, then a patron of the Down's Syndrome Association, defended testing and abortion saying Ã¢â¬Å"The hard facts are that it is costly in terms of human effort, compassion, energy, and finite resources such as money, to care for individuals with handicapsÃ¢â¬ ¦People who are not yet parents should ask themselves if they have the right to inflict such burde ns on others, however willing they are themselves to take their share of the burden in the beginning some physicians and ethicists are concerned about the ethical ramifications of the high abortion rate for this condition.  Conservative commentator George Will called it Ã¢â¬Å"eugenics by abortionÃ¢â¬ . 60] British peer Lord Rix stated that Ã¢â¬Å"alas, the birth of a child with Down's syndrome is still considered by many to be an utter tragedyÃ¢â¬ and that the Ã¢â¬Å"ghost of the biologist Sir Francis Galton, who founded the eugenics movement in 1885, still stalks the corridors of many a hospitalÃ¢â¬ . Doctor David Mortimer has argued in Ethics & Medicine that Ã¢â¬Å"Down's syndrome infants have long been disparaged by some doctors and government bean counters. Some members of the disability rights movement Ã¢â¬Å"believe that public support for prenatal diagnosis and abortion based on disability contravenes the movement's basic philosophy and goals.Peter Singer argued t hat Ã¢â¬Å"neither hemophilia nor Down's syndrome is so crippling as to make life not worth living from the inner perspective of the person with the condition. To abort a fetus with one of these disabilities, intending to have another child who will not be disabled, is to treat fetuses as interchangeable or replaceable. If the mother has previously decided to have a certain number of children, say two, then what she is doing, in effect, is rejecting one potential child in favor of another.She could, in defence of her actions, say: the loss of life of the aborted fetus is outweighed by the gain of a better life for the normal child who will be conceived only if the disabled one dies. Individuals with Down syndrome have a higher risk for many conditions. The medical consequences of the extra genetic material in Down syndrome are highly variable and may affect the function of any organ system or bodily process. Some problems are present at birth, such as certain heart malformations. Ot hers become apparent over time, such as pilepsy. Other things Down syndrome patients go through are very emotional. For people with Down syndrome it is very hard to cope with the everyday activities. It is also hard on the family, especially the parents. It can be very frustrating for the parents to cope with having a child with Down. People born with Down syndrome require so much more extra attention than that of a normal child. Suggestions from some psychologists are for the parents to go to some kind of group sessions to talk to other parents who have children with Down.Therefore, someone else can understand the frustrations that they go through in raising their child. People with Down syndrome have a lot of different emotions running through their mind and body. People with Down syndrome, whatever their age, are people first. They are people with abilities, strengths and weaknesses like everyone else. They may have additional needs but first they have the same needs as everyone else of their age group. The quality of health care, education and community support provided to children and adults with Down syndrome makes a real difference to their progress throughout life.This module provides an introduction to all the issues that need to be addressed to enable individuals with Down syndrome, and their families, to enjoy full and happy lives within their communities. It offers an overview of the development of individuals with Down syndrome from infancy to adult life. It also provides a summary of the causes of Down syndrome, the incidence and prevalence of the condition, life expectancy and associated education and health care needs. Further modules in this series address each of these issues in detail.Down syndrome patients also have another way to look at things. The most of the time feel different and out of place. Most would like to know who Down syndrome affects. For instance what race and what are the ratios of living past a teenager Children and adults with Down syndrome have a wide range of abilities. A person with Down syndrome may be very healthy or may have unusual and demanding medical and social problems at virtually every stage of life. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s important to remember that every person with Down syndrome is a unique individual. Each child will develop at his or her own pace.It may take children with Down syndrome longer than other children to reach develop Down syndrome cannot be cured. However, early treatment can help many people with Down syndrome to live productive lives well into adulthood. Children with Down syndrome can often benefit from speech therapy, occupational therapy, and exercises to help improve their motor skills. They might also be helped by special education and attention at school. Some of the medical problems common in people with Down syndrome, like cataracts, hearing problems, thyroid problems, and seizure disorders, can be also treated or corrected.It has been suggested that children with Down sy ndrome might benefit from medical treatment that includes amino acid supplements and a drug known as Piracetam. Piracetam is a drug that some people believe may improve the ability of the brain to learn and understand. However, there have been no controlled clinical studies with Piracetam to date in the U. S. or elsewhere that show its safety and efficacy. The life expectancy for people with Down syndrome has increased substantially. In 1929, the average life span of a person with Down syndrome was nine years. Today, it is common for a person with Down syndrome to live to age 50 and beyond.In addition to living longer, people with Down syndrome are now living fuller, richer lives than ever before as family members and contributors to their community. Many people with Down syndrome form meaningful relationships and eventually marry. Now that people with Down syndrome are living longer, the needs of adults with Down syndrome are receiving greater attention. With assistance from family and caretakers, many adults with Down syndrome have developed the skills required to hold jobs and to live semi-independently mental milestones, but many of these milestones will eventually be met.Therefore, parents should not compare the progress of a child with Down syndrome to the progress of other siblings or even to other children. [pic][pic] [pic] Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â  Down syndrome K. Le Lerner Pg. 1377. Paragraph 1.  Genes and Disorders. By Fay Evans-martin. Pg. 14 paragraph 2.  Fay Evans-martin Pg. 17 Paragraph 3.    Genes & Disease By: Fay Evans Pg. 67  Genes and Disorders Br Fay Evans Pg. 71  Genes And Diseases By Fay Evans Pg. 71  Pg. 75 Genes And Disorders By Fay Evans  Down syndrome medical guide. Pg. 749
Saturday, January 4, 2020
EmmaÃ¢â¬â¢s Self-propelled Downfall Gustave FlaubertÃ¢â¬â¢s Madame Bovary, is the story of Emma, a naÃ ¯ve girl who dreams of having a life, bigger than the one she can ever achieve. Flaubert throughout the story depicts average members of society with all their faults. Greed, lust, deceit, and incompetence are the stock in trade of all his characters. The story has no heroes, only losers and fools who waste their unfulfilled lives. Emma schooled in a convent is desperate to feel the excitement of real love as she imagines it to be. Emma is married to Charles Bovary, the first man she ever really knows. Charles is the classic underachiever whose shortcomings plague Emma throughout their marriage. Charles will never have the position, money, success, or class status she so desperately desires. Marriage, a child, and respectability cannot assuage her disappointment in herself and her life. She finds solace and excitement in things she cannot afford and men she cannot resist. Emma has no one to blame but herself for all her failings. Her ego and sense of entitlement overrides her common sense and allows her to borrow money that she will never be able to repay. Like an addict without self-control, she continues borrow money and have affairs that never really satisfy her. She hates herself for her deceptions and constantly fears exposure. Her life becomes a downward spiral of lies and shame that eventually ends in the cowardÃ¢â¬â¢s solution of suicide. EmmaÃ¢â¬â¢s story begins with CharlesShow MoreRelatedEmma Roberts. Profesor Veach . English Composition I. January1031 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesEmma Roberts Profesor Veach English Composition I January 19th, 2017 Defiled Ã¢â¬Å"Do not turn to mediums or seek out spiritists, for you will be defiled by them,Ã¢â¬ are words from Leviticus 19:31 (NIV). They are very applicable through the course of a famous 1606 tragedy named, Macbeth, by William Shakespeare. The main character, a Scottish general named Macbeth, receives prophecies from a trio of witches that one day he will become the mighty King of Scotland. These witches, also know as the Ã¢â¬Å"weird
Friday, December 27, 2019
Wesley Shermantine and Loren HerzogÃ were dubbed the Speed Freak Killers after a 15-year methamphetamine drug-induced killing spree that began in 1984 and ended in 1999. Childhood Friends Loren Herzog and Wesley Shermantine, Jr. were childhood friends, having grown up on the same street in the small farming town of Linden, California. Shermantines father was a successful contractor who showered Wesley with material things throughout his young life. He was also an avid hunter and would often take both boys hunting and fishing until they were old enough to go on their own. The boys spent much of their childhood exploring the hills, rivers, rocks and the mineshafts of San Joaquin County. Serial Killers Emerge Herzog and Shermantine remained best friends through high school and into adulthood. It seems that what one did the other did including bullying, hard drinking, and eventually serious drugging. After high school they shared an apartment for a while in nearby Stockton and their involvement in drugs, especially methamphetamine, escalated. Together their behavior spiraled downward and a dark side emerged. Everyone who brushed by them was a potential victim and they managed to literally get away with murder for years. Murderous Rampage Investigators now believe that Herzog and Shermantine began murdering people when they were around 18 or 19 years old, however, it is possible it started earlier. It was later determined that they were responsible for the cold-blooded murder of friends and strangers alike. Why they murdered seemed to be determined by what they needed - sex, money, or simply for the thrill of the hunt. They seemed to wallow in their evil and at times they would make comments that alluded to the danger that those who crossed them might find. Shermantine was known for bragging to his family and friends about making people disappear in Stockton. During an attack on a woman he allegedly tried to rape, he pushed her head to the ground and told her she should listen to the heartbeats of people Ive buried here. Listen to the heartbeats of families Ive buried here. The two were arrested in March 1999 for suspicion of theÃ murder of two girls who were missing. Chevelle Chevy Wheeler, 16, had been missing since October 16, 1985, and Cyndi Vanderheiden, 25, vanished on November 14, 1998. Once in custody the childhood bond that Herzog and Shermantine quickly dissolved. 17-Hour Interrogation The San Joaquin detectives began what turned out to be an intensive 17-hour interrogation of Loren Herzog, most of which was videotaped. Herzog quickly turned on his best friend, describing Shermantine as a cold-blooded killer who would kill for no reason. He told detectives that Shermantine was responsible for at least 24 murders. He described an incident when Shermantine shot a hunter who they ran into while they were on vacation in Utah in 1994. Utah police confirmed that a hunter was shot to death, but that it was still classified as an unsolved murder. He also said that Shermantine was responsible for killing Henry Howell who was found parked off the road with his teeth and head bashed in. Herzogs said that he and Shermantine passed Howell parked on the highway and that Shermantine stopped, grabbed his shotgun, and killed Howell and then robbed what little money he had. Herzog also said that Shermantine killed Howard King and Paul Raymond in 1984. Tire marks matching his truck were found at the scene. He gave specific details as to how Chevelle Wheeler, Cyndi Vanderheiden, and Robin Armtrout were kidnapped, raped and killed and said that during it all he just watched. Ready to Head Home One can only speculate as to the truth in what Herzog told detectives. All of what he said was self-serving, with the intent of making it out that Shermantine was the killer, the monster, and he (Herzog) was another one of Shermantines victims. When asked why he never stopped Shermantine or called the police, he said he was scared. It was later said that Herzog really expected to be released after the interrogation so that he could return home to his wife and children, knowing that Shermantine would no longer be a danger to him. Of course, that did not happen, at least not right away. The Interrogation of Shermantine Shermantine had little to say during the 1999 interrogation. He told investigators that on the night that Vanderheiden went missing that he met Herzog at a bar, had some drinks, played pool and spoke briefly to Cyndi Vanderheiden. He said in fact that he barely noticed her and that she left an hour before he left to go home. It was not until he saw the tapes of what Herzog told the interrogators that Shermantine began to do his own form of finger-pointing. He told reporters, ...If Loren can give details about all these murders, it must mean hes the one that did them. Im innocent...With everything Loren told detectives, Id bet my life there were other bodies out there. On Trial for Murder Wesley Shermantine was charged with the first-degree murder of Chevy Wheeler, Cyndi Vanderheiden, Paul Cavanaugh, and Howard King. During Shermantines trial, right before the sentencing phase, he agreed to tell officials where the bodies of four of Shermantines victims could be found in exchange for $20,000, but no deal was ever made. Prosecutors offered to remove the death penalty from the table if he gave them information on where they could find the bodies, but he turned them down. He was found guilty of the four murders and given the death penalty. He now resides on death row in San Quentin State Prison. Loren Herzog was charged with murdering Cyndi Vanderheiden, Howard King, Paul Cavanaugh, Robin Armtrout and to the accessory to the murder of Henry Howell. He was found not guilty of being an accessory to the murder of Henry Howell, acquitted in the murder of Robin Armtrout, but was found guilty of first-degree murder of Cyndi Vanderheiden, Howard King, and Paul Cavanaugh. He was given a 78-year sentence. Herzog Conviction Overturned In August 2004, a state appeals court overturned Herzogs conviction, saying that police coerced his confession during the long interrogation sessions. They also said that the police ignored Herzogs rights to remain silent, deprived him of food and sleep and delayed his arraignment for four days. A new trial was ordered, but Herzogs lawyers worked out a plea deal with prosecutors. Herzog agreed to plead guilty to manslaughter in the Vanderheiden case and to being an accessory to the murders of King, Howell, Ã¢â¬â¹and Cavanaugh. He also accepted a charge of giving Vanderheiden methamphetamine. In exchange, Ã¢â¬â¹he received a 14-year sentence with credit for time served. Herzog was out on parole on September 18, 2010, as scheduled. He was sent to a modular home inside the High Desert State Prison grounds in Lassen County, around 200 miles from Stockton away from many of the relatives of his victims and those who testified against him in court. The citizens of Lassen County were livid at the thought of such a person being placed in their community. Safety measures were taken to protect the community from the new resident. Condition of Parole Even though Herzog had been paroled from prison he was still under the watchful eyes of the authorities. The conditions of his parole were: He was required to wear a GPS bracelet that alerted his parole officer if he went more than 150 feet from his small fifth-wheel trailer.He and all visitors had to check in and out with a gatehouse operator.He could not leave his trailer between the hours of 8:30 p.m. to 5:30 a.m. and from 1:30 to 3:30 p.m.Because of the tight restrictions, Ã¢â¬â¹he was not required to work. Basically, he was out of prison, isolated and alone, and still under the watchful eye of prison authorities. Shermantines Revenge? Some say he needed money for candy bars, others say he couldnt stand the thought of Herzog being set free, but either way in December 2011 Wesley Shermantine offered again to reveal the locations of the bodies of several victims in exchange for money. He referred to the areas as Herzogs party area and continued to deny responsibility for murdering anyone. Bounty hunter Leonard Padilla agreed to pay him $33,000. Herzog Commits Suicide On Jan. 17, 2012, Loren Herzog was found dead hanging in his trailer. Leonard Padilla said he spoke with Herzog earlier in the day to warn him to get a lawyer because Shermantine was turning over maps of where they buried the bodies of their victims. Herzog left behind a suicide note that said, Tell my family I love them. Painted in Hate An autopsy of Loren Herzog was performed and in the report, the various tattoos found on his body was described in detail. Reportedly much of his skin was covered in satanic images including skulls and flames. Running down the length of his left legs were the words, Made And Fueled by Hate and Restrained By Reality and on his right foot was a tattoo that read, Made The Devil Do It. Serial Killers Keep Killing Investigators have long said that the Speed Freak Killers were probably responsible for at least 24 or more murders. It is highly unlikely that the duo killed in 1984 then stopped and did not kill again until November 14, 1998. If anything the number of murders from serial killers increase as time goes on as does their confidence in their ability to outsmart the police. Both killers pointed to the other one and said that they were cold-blooded, but it is doubtful that the true number of victims that died at the hands of these killers will ever be known. Burial Sites Disclosed In February 2012, Shermantine provided maps to five burial sites where he said some of Herzogs victims would be found. Referring to an area near San Andreas as Herzogs boneyard investigators found the remains of Cyndi Vanderheiden and Chevelle Wheeler. Investigators also found almost 1,000 human bone fragments in an old abandoned well as they excavated one of five burial sites marked on Sermantines map. Shermantine turned over the maps after bounty hunter Leonard Padilla agreed to pay him $33,000. Holding the Best for Last In March 2012, Shermantine wrote a letter to a local television station in Sacramento where he claims he can lead investigators to more of Herzogs victims and a third man involved in the murders. He claimed that there are as many as 72 victims. But he said until Leonard Padilla pays him the $33,000 that he said he would pay, he will not give the information up. I really want to believe in Leonard, but I have these doubts hell come through, which is a shame because Ive been holding the best for last, Shermantine wrote.